Some scientists – O. Kis, L. Stavytska – tend to consider the image of a woman-guardian
Many modern studies state that in politics and government structures, women should make up at least 13-30% of managers. Otherwise, government will be carried out according to men’s standards. It is known that the “male” style of problem solving is often reduced to direct confrontation and conflict, while the “female” is based on the preservation of stability and traditions. This approach is especially relevant for the conflict-generating post-Soviet space [15.64].
Modern gender studies emphasize that states must adopt national development programs designed to promote gender balance and eliminate all forms of gender asymmetry that impede the establishment of true democracy. In this regard, we emphasize once again that modern political doctrines and practices of statehood development can no longer develop without taking into account the relationship between women and men in every society. Thus, gender mainstreaming not only expands the field of analysis of moral problems of politics, but also places new emphasis on the issue of state power.
Language and the media as factors in the formation of gender equality or inequality. The close connection between language and society remains unquestionable: language not only reflects real life events, but is also able to influence them, eloquent examples of which are, in particular, such speech acts as the declaration of war or the death sentence. The way language portrays women and men has a profound effect on their role and attitudes towards them in society. And an important role in this is played by the media, which are able to convey information to various segments of the population in the most remote corners of the country in the shortest possible time.
Undoubtedly, women and men are portrayed differently in different languages of the world, just as their situation is different in different countries. However, numerous studies on materials from different languages have revealed common features of the image of articles, including the following:
The image of a man as a norm, and a woman as a deviation from it, an example of which is the use of masculine words when it comes to a man in general or a woman. As a result, the woman becomes “invisible” in language. In cases where she becomes “visible”, her visibility is asymmetrical: a woman is often made “visible” only to emphasize her “deviation” from the norm, that is, a man. Lexical and grammatical forms of the feminine gender depend on and are often formed from masculine forms. The linguistic image of women and men is stereotypical: women are mostly portrayed as sexual and men as rational beings.
The reason for the “invisibility” of women is linguistic androcentrism, which in this case is manifested in the image of women through masculine forms, especially nouns and pronouns. That is why women remain “invisible” even when they are the heroines of newspapers and magazines.
At first glance, the Ukrainian media is enough to notice the different images of men and women. Men appear in serious news and are the protagonists of much of the newspaper and magazine reports more often than women. On the one hand, the “invisibility” of women in the media coverage of the country’s political and economic life is quite natural, as the vast majority of political and economic figures are men, and therefore the number of reports of women is only proportional to their number in the bodies. power and management positions.
Most scholars explain the concept of “gender stereotypes” as one of the types of social stereotypes, standardized, stable, emotionally saturated and value-based images based on socially accepted notions of “masculine” (male) and “feminine” (female). They are formed over the centuries and are fixed even on the subconscious mental level of the nation.
One of the main dimensions in determining the role and place of women and men in modern society is the opposition “public-private”. In this regard, the appointment of a woman and her interests tend to a purely private sphere (family, household responsibilities, children), while a man owns the pedestal of a public person, for whom the main thing is work, self-realization and public recognition.
Representatives of feminist genderology V. Ageeva, L. Leontieva, O. Fomenko talk about leveling the role of women in the historical process and demand today a revision of history, in which “women’s merits are only a minor addition to men’s achievements.” But A. Okara notes that “a positive feature of Ukraine is the presence of a full-fledged feminine principle, which is not present in many other close cultures.”
Gender stereotypes, given their nature and period of functioning in the language, can be divided into traditional, new and current.
Traditional stereotypes have a long history of use and convey the age-old ideas of the people about the nature and purpose of men and women in society. They were formed over the centuries, enshrined in the minds of many generations of speakers and now continue to influence the worldview of contemporaries. These include the nominatives: Guardian, Nurse, Adam, Eve, Strong Sex, Weak Sex, Opposite Sex, and others.
New ones have appeared in the language relatively recently, under the influence of changing conditions of social development, and are based on today’s realities of life and new subjectivity. Presented by concepts: Barbie, Superman, Sex Symbol, Model, etc. Retaining a share of the seeds of traditional stereotypes, they form new, more modern ideas about “feminine” and “masculine”.
We call traditional stereotypical names actualized, synchronized in modern discourse taking into account new semantic characteristics. These are lexical gender pairs: Partner-Partner, Female-Male, Prince-Princess, etc.
Through the prism of stereotypical clichés, the image of Beregina is perceived today, which in the Ukrainian tradition characterizes the appointment of a woman in a predominantly private sphere, as well as the image of the Nurse in relation to men: a woman in society is the guardian of the home, and a man is the breadwinner “(MU. – 2004. – July 10).
Some scientists – O. Kis, L. Stavytska – tend to consider the image of a woman-guardianthem to Ukrainian society. He, as O. Kis notes, “on the one hand, reproduces conservative gender stereotypes with the characteristic attachment of women exclusively to the private sphere (family, home), on the other – under the slogan” revival of tradition “instills an artificial model of female identification, which in fact has little to do with Ukraine’s past. “That is, according to the researcher, the main semantic load of this image is the absolutization of female reproductive and domestic functions, rather than the assertion of its” matriarchal “social dominant.
The image of Beregina in journalistic speech is actualized in the first years of independence, when he moves from the category of archaisms to an active vocabulary in its original semantic meaning of “holy and divine woman.” Gradually, the meaning of the figurative concept of “caretaker woman” is changing. She is credited with the house-building “instinct of preserving offspring, protecting the family” (DT. – 2001. – April 7-13), which is based on three stereotypical “whales”: kitchen, children, work, which artificially diminish the interests of women: “She is spinning like a squirrel in a wheel to have time everywhere: children, husband, work” (DT. – 2002. – September 14-20)
In modern society, the stereotypical notion of the Ukrainian woman as a “guardian” goddess of the family, asserted during the first years of independence, is often understood in a high tone, although sometimes becomes declarative: “now it is necessary to assess really the status of women in Ukrainian society – without. ” fornication “. At the level of declarations, she is the Guardian, that is, she rises to the sacred. And really.” (DT. – 2000. – July 29 – August 4).
The man, along with the “guardian and guardian of the hearth”, is usually depicted as a “breadwinner” (MU. – 2004. – October 7), who “defends his world in open battle, on the battlefield” (DT. – 2001. – 7– April 13.). He assumes a maximum of abstract knightly functions, which are “associated with a high degree of risk – he is a breadwinner, hunter, defender, warrior” (DT. – 2003. – February 1-7).
The image of the Sustainer is also identified with the concept of “married man” (used even in contexts where there is no need to emphasize the functions of the husband as a seeker). For example, to describe a man who betrays his wife: “As for the woman, the sexual entertainment of the breadwinner” on the side “in itself did not threaten her” (DT. – 2003. – February 8-14). Or, in general, characterizes a person who replenishes the family budget (if literally, feeds his family): “Nowadays in our country the most common are traditional gender roles, according to which the breadwinner of the family is a man” (DT. – 2003. – 22 – Oct. 28).
In the newspaper discourse there is often a change in life https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ priorities, the transformation of the gender roles of men and women. Journalists draw attention to a new social phenomenon, the process of “feminization” of the beautiful half of humanity, which is understood as gaining independence from men: “Ukrainian woman was not only” Guardian “. And a purse (and often also feeds him , her husband.) “(DT. – 2000. – July 29 – Aug. 4). Becoming financially independent, a woman needs a man, first of all, no longer as a breadwinner, but as a friend and partner, for example, “emotional and sexual partner, and if someone expresses a desire to” serve a man “then only the most worthy of the most worthy “(DT. – 2002 – May 18-24).
It is interesting to note that in some cases, women writers deliberately use feminine forms to question their intellectual and professional abilities. Thus, the author of the article about Oksana Zabuzhko “Fairy Tales about Girls and Self-Identification” (PIC, March 11, 22-28, 2003) calls the writer “Mrs. Author” “Zabuzhko’s feminist” and her works are nothing more than “stories”.